Operation Rolling Thunder began March 2, 1965. It was a sustained bombing of North Vietnam by both the U. S. Navy and the U. S. Air Force. It resulted in 1,048 killed, captured or missing and the loss of 938 aircraft. It was the most complex and difficult bombing operations since World War II. It concluded on November 2, 1968, when President Johnson, in a futile gesture of conciliation, ceased the operation to advance the Paris Peace talks.