Panama (Operation Just Cause) took place beginning on December 20, 1989 and concluded on January 31, 1990. Its purposes included protection of Panamanian democracy and human rights against dictator General Manuel Noreiga and to protect American interests in the Panama Canal Zone. It resulted in a restoration of civilian control and subsequent free elections. In 1994, the people of Panama permanently abolished the military. American losses were 23 killed and 325 wounded.