The Pacific Theater Campaign of World War II pitted the forces of The Empire of Japan primarily against the United States Navy and many of its Allies including Australia and Great Britain. Allied forces were commanded by U. S. Admiral Chester Nimitz. It began with the attack on Pearl Harbor and stretched across the entire Pacific Ocean from Alaska’s Aleutian Islands to China and Australia. The brutal and difficult island hopping campaigns involving U. S. Army and Marines came to an end on September 2, 1945 with the Japanese surrender aboard the U.S.S. Missouri at Tokyo Bay. During the more than eight years of war, the Allies suffered more than four million military and seventeen million civilian casualties.